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Cover of General Chemistry: Principles, Patterns, and Applications v2.1
July 2020
Page Count: 
ISBN (Digital): 

General Chemistry: Principles, Patterns, and Applications

Version 2.1
By Bruce Averill and Patricia Eldredge

Key Features

  • Written at a level suitable for science majors, but with a less formal writing style that appeals to today’s students.
  • Formatted to be less visually cluttered than typical general chemistry books in order to promote improved learning.
  • Stresses unifying concepts by presenting an integrated overview of the most important chemistry subdisciplines: organic, inorganic, biological, environmental, material, and nuclear.
  • Focuses on developing learners’ intuitive and predictive critical thinking and problem-solving skills.
  • Supports the development of strong operational skills.
  • Covers liquids and solids in two chapters to allow for expanded coverage of topics such as semiconductors, superconductors, polymers, and engineering materials.
  • Fundamental concepts are introduced at the start of each chapter and followed by applications at the end of each chapter, enabling flexible assignment based on the audience.
  • Topical organization is logical and discretely organized, facilitating easy syllabus preparation and course delivery.
  • Plentiful, interdisciplinary, and high-quality worked examples and exercises promote concept mastery. Application problems encourage a grasp of ideas behind the subject matter.
  • Three-dimensional molecular representations promote the development of spatial skills.
  • Supportive pedagogical structure refines and reinforces learning:
    • “Learning Objectives” lay out the key ideas to be discussed in each main section.
    • “Note the Pattern” boxes use short phrases to emphasize key concepts.  
    • “Summary” boxes at the end of each main section review the section’s main ideas in prose form.
    • “Key Takeaways” at the end of each main section present the section’s key ideas in list format.
    • “Essential Skills” boxes, found throughout the text, ensure students develop the mathematical skills necessary for successful comprehension of concepts.
    • “Conceptual Problems” and “Numerical Problems” alternate at the end of each main section. “Conceptual Problems” emphasize understanding and applying the ideas covered in the preceding main section. “Numerical Problems” facilitate the development of strong operational skills. Answers are provided for many of the problems, and detailed solutions and answers to all main section problems can be found in the instructor’s or solutions manuals.
    • “Application Problems” at the end of every chapter require students to synthesize and apply concepts drawn from the entire chapter in order to provide correct answers. Answers are provided for many of the problems, and detailed solutions and answers to all “Application Problems” can be found in the instructor’s or solutions manuals.


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This textbook is suitable for the following courses: General Chemistry: Principles, Patterns, and Applications, v2.1 is suitable for general chemistry courses intended for chemistry or engineering majors offered at two- and four-year colleges and universities.

General Chemistry: Principles, Patterns, and Applications, v2.1 adopts a seamless approach to explaining the interdisciplinary relevance of chemistry. This textbook integrates the exciting and relevant aspects of biological, environmental, and material sciences throughout, rather than relegating the substance of these topics to the final chapters. Consequently, simple organic structures, nomenclature, and reactions are introduced early on; distinctions between ionic and covalent bonding are emphasized; the relationship between structure and reactivity is stressed; and both organic and inorganic examples are employed whenever possible. The net result is a current and lively treatment of the subject that sparks curiosity and grabs students’ attention. By presenting a systematic method to problem solving, this textbook encourages learners to develop the essential skills proven necessary to succeed in a general chemistry course, while also building a strong foundation for additional coursework in chemistry, engineering, and the life sciences.

New in This Version

Version 2.1 is updated to include over 120 new hyperlinks to videos to enrich online courses, engage students, and reinforce or augment many of the presented topics.

Reflects the recent updates in Version 2.0:

  • Updated the Periodic Table of Elements throughout to show the lanthanides and actinides and accommodate elements 112-118, which are at the edge of a theoretically predicted “island of stability” starting at element 118 (oganesson).
  • Added environmental science applications to better reflect contemporary students’ priorities and interests.
  • Updated to integrate recent data and findings. Examples include discussions of how shock-sensitive XeO3 reacts with crown ether (15-crown-5) to form a stable adduct (Chapter 22), and new developments in the area of contemporary materials (Chapter 12).
  • Streamlined coverage of more advanced topics.
  • Augmented end-of-chapter problems and reviewed them for accuracy.
  • New, more reader-friendly interior design and refreshed illustration program.
  • Now available with FlatWorld Homework.  
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Instructor’s Manual

Instructor’s Manual

The Instructor’s Manual guides you through the main concepts of each chapter and important elements such as learning objectives, key terms, and key takeaways. Can include answers to chapter exercises, group activity suggestions, and discussion questions.

Instructor’s Manual

PowerPoint Lecture Notes

PowerPoint Lecture Notes

A PowerPoint presentation highlighting key learning objectives and the main concepts for each chapter are available for you to use in your classroom. You can either cut and paste sections or use the presentation as a whole.

PowerPoint Lecture Notes

Test Generator - powered by Cognero

Test Generator - powered by Cognero

FlatWorld has partnered with Cognero, a leading online assessment system, that allows you to create printable tests from FlatWorld provided content.

Test Bank Files for Import to Learning Management Systems

Test Bank Files for Import to Learning Management Systems

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Solutions Manual

Solutions Manual

For exercises that need a little more explanation, our Solutions Manual will take you step by step through solving the problem and offer explanations on the answer.

Solutions Manual

Test Item File

Test Item File

Need assistance in supplementing your quizzes and tests? Our test-item files (in Word format) contain many multiple-choice, fill-in-the-blank, and short-answer questions.

Sample Syllabi

Sample Syllabi

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Bruce Averill Chemist, Product Science Branch, Antimicrobials Division, Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C.

Bruce A. Averill grew up in New England. He received his B.S. with high honors in chemistry at Michigan State University in 1969, and he received his Ph.D. in inorganic chemistry at MIT in 1973. After three years as an NIH and NSF Postdoctoral Fellow at Brandeis University and the University of Wisconsin, he began his independent academic career at Michigan State University in 1976. He was promoted in 1982, after which he moved to the University of Virginia, where he was promoted to Professor in 1988. In 1994, Dr. Averill moved to the University of Amsterdam in the Netherlands to work as Professor of Biochemistry. He then returned to the United States to the University of Toledo in 2001, where he was a Distinguished University Professor.

Dr. Averill's research interests are centered on the role of metal ions in biology. In his European position, Dr. Averill was responsible for obtaining funding for and coordinating the research activities of seven research groups from seven different European countries. In addition, he was responsible for the research theme on Biocatalysis within the E. C. Slater Institute of the University of Amsterdam, where he worked as head of a team of 21 professionals, ranging from associate professors to masters students at any given time. Dr. Averill's research has attracted a great deal of attention in the scientific community. His published work is frequently cited by other researchers, and he has been invited to give more than 100 presentations at educational and research institutions and at national and international scientific meetings.

Among his numerous awards, Dr. Averill has been named an Honorary Woodrow Wilson Fellow, an NSF Predoctoral Fellow, an NIH and NSF Postdoctoral Fellow, and an Alfred P. Sloan Foundation Fellow; he has also received an NSF Special Creativity Award. Dr. Averill has published more than 135 articles dealing with chemical, physical, and biological subjects in refereed journals and 15 chapters in various books. He has also published more than 80 abstracts from national and international meetings, and he co-edited a graduate text on catalysis. In addition, he has taught courses at all levels, including general chemistry, biochemistry, advanced inorganic, and physical methods. In 2004, Dr. Averill decided to explore an alternative to higher education by joining the State Department as one of the first Jefferson Science Fellows, focusing on scientific issues in the Western Hemisphere. Eventually, he returned to the State Department as a W.C. Foster Fellow in 2006, and subsequently joined the staff as the Senior Coordinator for Critical Energy Infrastructure Protection Policy. After several years, he left the State Department and briefly taught chemistry at the advanced secondary level, before finding himself working at the Environmental Protection Agency, reviewing proposals as an expert chemist.

Patricia Eldredge Founder, H/T Consulting

Patricia Eldredge was raised in the U.S. diplomatic service and has traveled and lived around the world. After receiving a B.A. in Spanish language and literature from The Ohio State University, Dr. Eldredge developed an interest in chemistry while studying general chemistry at Kent State University. She obtained a B.S. in chemistry from the University of Central Florida. Following several years working as an analytical research chemist in the industry, she obtained her Ph.D. in inorganic chemistry from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. In 1989, Dr. Eldredge was named the Science Policy Fellow for the American Chemical Society. While in Washington, D.C., she examined the impact of changes in federal funding priorities on academic research funding. She was awarded a Postdoctoral Research Fellowship with Oak Ridge Associated Universities, working with the U.S. Department of Energy on heterogeneous catalysis and coal liquefaction. Subsequently, she joined the University of Virginia as a Research Scientist and a member of the General Faculty. In 1992, Dr. Eldredge moved to Europe for several years, where she studied advanced maritime engineering, materials, and oceanography at the University of Southampton in England. The work stemmed from her keen interest in naval engineering materials. After returning to the United States in 2002, she worked as a visiting assistant professor and a senior research scientist at the University of Toledo.

Her research interests include the use of protein scaffolds to synthesize biologically relevant clusters. Dr. Eldredge has published more than a dozen articles in leading journals dealing with synthetic inorganic chemistry and catalysis. Several of these articles presented seminal studies describing new synthetic approaches to metal-sulfur clusters. She has also been awarded a patent for her work through the Department of Energy. Her diverse teaching experience includes courses on chemistry for the life sciences, introductory chemistry, general, organic, and analytical chemistry, materials science, and MCAT preparatory courses. She has also conducted extensive research into STEM education and the tools needed to develop skills that promote student success. Dr. Eldredge is a member of the US Coast Guard Auxiliary, which comprises one-third of the Coast Guard forces and is particularly active in the Auxiliary University Program. She is also an avid offshore sailor with advanced credentials on both sides of “the Pond.”

Additions & Errata


1) Chapter 10, Example 17 Solution (a.A), p. 738
 234.04 changed to 235.04

2) Chapter 14, Example 12, Exercise B (d.), p. 1014
 First “2”: superscript
 Second “2”: subscript
 Third “2”: superscript

3) Chapter 14, Example 12, Exercise B Answer (a.), first equation, p. 1014
 The “1” changed to subscript, and the “2” changed to superscript


Chapter 16, section 1: question 11d, 250 mL was corrected to 275mL.


Bolded C, C, C, S, and N atoms in image in Application Problem #3 in Chapter 9, Section 5.

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